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To determine the analytical sensitivity of the one-step RT-PCR using NA8F-M13 and NA10R-M13 primers, ten-fold serial dilutions of in-vitro transcribed RNA of the NA fragment amplified by our primers of egg-cultured sample A/Chicken/Cambodia/1A/04/H5N1 (shown in Table 2) were made down to 10 copies/μL transcribed RNA. The concentration of the transcribed RNA (ng/μL) was quantified using the Nanodrop ND-1000 UV-Vis spectrophotometer (Nanodrop Technologies). Conversion of ng/μL of single stranded RNA to pmol/μL was performed using the following mathematical formula: pmol/μL = ng/μL (of ssRNA) (1 μg/1000 ng) (106 pg/1 μg) (1 pmol/340 pg) (1/N); where N = 324 bp, the number of bases of the RNA transcript, and 340 pg/pmol is the average molecular weight of a ribonucleotide. The copy number/μL transcribed RNA was calculated as follows: copy number/μL RNA transcript = (RNA in mol/μL) (Avogrado constant, 6.023 1023 molecules/mol) [37]. Two μL of undiluted RNA stock was used as a positive control, and two μL of each serial dilution was used for the one-step RT-PCR. Amplicons (10 μL/sample) were visualized by gel electrophoresis on 1.5% agarose containing ethidium bromide.

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This study was part of a larger study that aimed to investigate the validity, reliability and usability of performance indicators in Dutch hospitals [4, 10, 12]. All 97 hospitals in The Netherlands are private not-for-profit organisations. To better understand the practical use of performance indicators for quality management, we conducted interviews with key respondents such as quality managers and medical specialists. We chose interviews over a quantitative approach to learn more of the practical elements attributing positively or negatively to the use of performance indicators for quality management.

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Total RNA was prepared from subconfluent layers of the adherent cell cultures using the RNAzol method (Cinaa/Biotecx Laboratories, Inc.) according to the manufacturer's instructions. cDNA was synthesized using 2 μg RNA and random hexameric primers. PCR amplification and quantification were performed using the Taqman PCR assay (7700 Sequence Detector; Applied Biosystems). We used comparative quantification that normalized the HA-1 and CD45 gene to an internal standard gene, the ubiquitously expressed housekeeping gene porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD). The relative levels of expression of the HA-1 and CD45 genes in the test samples were calculated as percentages of the levels of expression in the reference cell line KG-1, which expresses both genes. All samples that showed expression levels

The HA-1 gene transcription levels were analyzed in 35 nonhematopoietic epithelial tumor cell lines derived from different types of carcinomas (Table I). The HA-1 gene transcription, analyzed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR, revealed significant HA-1 mRNA in 26 out of the 35 cell lines of various nonhematopoietic malignant origins. HA-1 mRNA has also been recently demonstrated on 17 tumor cell lines of nonhematopoietic origin by Fujii et al. (16). To justify the HA-1 expression on the cell lines, we executed the CD45 gene expression in parallel. None of the tumor cell lines we analyzed showed significant CD45 gene expression, demonstrating that HA-1 transcription observed in the tumor cell lines is not due to contaminating hematopoietic cells (Table I).

Real-time PCR. Total RNA from cell pellets was obtained using the Rneasy Mini kit (Qiagen GmbH) and retrotranscribed using High-Capacity cDNA Archive kit (Applied Biosystems) according to manufacturer's instructions. Quantitative Taqman PCR analysis was performed with the ABI PRISM 7900HT Sequence Detection System (Applied Biosystem) in a reaction volume of 25 μL containing 1 TaqmanUniversal Master Mix (Applied Biosystems) and 1 probes and primer sets Hs00705164_s1 (SOCS1; Taqman Gene Expression Assays, Applied Biosystems), Hs00269575_s1 (SOCS3; Taqman Gene Expression Assays, Applied Biosystems), Hs00751962_s1 (SOCS5; Taqman Gene Expression Assays, Applied Biosystems), or 1 Hu glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH; Pre-Developed Taqman Assay Reagents; Applied Biosystems). The thermal profile wasfollows: 95C for 10 min and 35 cycles at 95C for 15 s and 60C for 1 min. All amplification reactions were done in triplicate, and the relative quantitation of SOCS genes expression was calculated using the comparative Ct method (ΔΔCt). Levels of mRNA expression were expressed after normalization with endogenous control, GAPDH. Data processing and statistical analysis were performed using the ABI PRISM SDS, software version 2.1 (Applied Biosystems).


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